The History of Neurosurgery and Localization
Introduction to The History of Neurosurgery and Localization
In order to study the brain and the neurosciences, many individuals throughout history have attempted to figure out the best method, perspective or approach with which to attack it. Johannes Müller stated that if psychology wished to be a true science, then it had to be measured in a form which was not subjective (Finger & Wade, 2002a). While this easily is identifiable as a must for studying the functions of the brain, considering it would be hard to think about what the brain does without actually changing it, something more needed to be accomplished. Neuroscience, starting in the 1950s, found itself to be the accumulation of several sciences including “neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, neurochemistry, and behavior” (Cowan, Harter, & Kandel, 2000, p344). Cowan, Harter & Kandel (2000, p344) also note that there was a change that occurred later in which “molecular biology and molecular genetics” was integrated in and then later the introduction of the cognitive approach, which was the return of cognition previously abolished by the Behaviorists.
This section, titled “The History of Neurosurgery and Localization,” will explore the discoveries and theories which developed the discipline of neuroscience to where it is today. This section will strive to explain how the brain unfolded to neuroscientists and the methods in which they implemented.
– Travis Bice
brain_blogger (2008, December 26) How to prepare the skull for surgery, brain exposed, c. 16th century [Image File]. Retrieved from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/brainblogger/3137589099
Cowan, W.M., Harter, D.H. & Kandel, E.R. (2000). The emergence of modern neuroscience: Some implications for neurology and psychiatry. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 23, 343 – 391. doi: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.23.1.343
Finger, S. & Wade, N.J. (2002a). The neuroscience of Helmholtz and the theories of Johannes Müller: Part 1: Nerve cell structure, vitalism, and the nerve impulse. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 11(2), 136 – 155. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umw.edu:2048/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=4&hid=113&sid=5963d15d-2088-47a0-8af9-204c3868a47a%40sessionmgr115
By Travis Bice